How To Diagnose Neuropathy: Tests And Procedures

Numbness, tingling, and pain are just some of the symptoms that can be brought on by neuropathy, which is a condition that affects the peripheral nervous system. Neuropathy is a condition that can be difficult to diagnose because there are numerous possible causes of the condition, and the symptoms can be identical to those of other conditions. In this piece, we will talk about how to diagnose neuropathy, including the different tests and procedures that are used to determine whether or not someone has the condition.

Medical History And Physical Examination

The first step in diagnosing neuropathy is a medical history and physical examination. A professional doctor for neuropathy will ask about the patient’s symptoms, medical history, and any medications they are taking. They will also perform a physical examination, looking for signs of nerve damage such as muscle weakness, decreased reflexes, and loss of sensation.

Nerve Conduction Studies

Nerve conduction studies (NCS) are tests that measure the speed and strength of electrical signals transmitted through the nerves. Small electrodes are applied to the epidermis over the test nerve during the procedure. A small electric current is then applied to the electrode, causing the nerve to generate an electrical signal. The strength and speed of the signal are measured and recorded.

NCS can be used to diagnose a variety of nerve disorders, including neuropathy. The test can identify the location and severity of nerve damage and can help to differentiate between different types of neuropathy.


Electromyography (EMG) is a diagnostic procedure for gauging muscular electrical activity. During the test, small needles are inserted into the muscles being tested. The needles detect the electrical signals generated by the muscles during movement.

EMG can be used to diagnose muscle and nerve disorders, including neuropathy. The test can identify muscle weakness and atrophy, as well as the location and severity of nerve damage.

Quantitative Sensory Testing

Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is a test that measures the patient’s ability to sense different types of stimuli, including temperature, pressure, and vibration. The test involves applying different types of stimuli to the skin and asking the patient to identify the sensation.

By pinpointing specific areas of insensitivity, QST can be used to detect neuropathy. The diagnostic tool can also track neuropathy’s development and evaluate its response to therapy.

Skin Biopsy

A skin biopsy entails taking a tiny piece of skin for microscopic analysis. Skin biopsies can be used to diagnose neuropathy by examining the nerve endings in the skin for signs of damage.

Skin biopsies are particularly useful in diagnosing small fiber neuropathy, a type of neuropathy that affects the small nerve fibers in the skin.

Blood Tests

Blood tests can be used to diagnose certain types of neuropathy, including neuropathy caused by diabetes and autoimmune disorders. Blood tests can measure blood sugar levels, identify antibodies that attack the nervous system, and measure levels of vitamin B12 and other nutrients that are important for nerve health.

Genetic Testing

In some cases, neuropathy may be caused by genetic factors. Genetic testing can be used to identify inherited conditions that may be causing neuropathy. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, hereditary neuropathy with a predisposition to pressure palsies (HNPP), and Friedreich’s ataxia are all examples of genetic diseases that can cause neuropathy.


Diagnosing neuropathy can be challenging, as there are many potential causes of the condition and the symptoms can be similar to other conditions. A thorough medical history and physical examination are the first steps in diagnosing neuropathy. Additional tests and procedures, such as nerve conduction studies, electromyography, quantitative sensory testing, skin biopsies, blood tests, and genetic testing, may also be necessary to identify the underlying cause of the neuropathy.

Medical professionals at South Valley Neurology, which can be found at, can help you to get the accurate diagnosis and treatment plan that you need. A prompt and accurate diagnosis is essential for developing an effective treatment plan and managing symptoms.